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The tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of specialized tumor vasculature and a mixture of cancer-associated fibroblasts, pericytes, endothelial cells, together with other specialized stromal cells types, like the tumor-associated macrophages producing tumorsuppressive factors. These cells are all recruited by the tumor cells to the primary tumor site.

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Immunohistochemical staining of human liver with Anti-CD163 Antibody (HPA051974) shows strong membraneous positivity in Kupffer cells.